Organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body to maintain health.

Ascorbic Acid ( Vitamin C )

A water soluble nutrient found in foods such as fruits and vegetables. Vitamin C is needed for normal growth and development aiding in the repair of wounds, as well as being an antioxidant and having immune boosting effects against the common cold. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2000

Beta - Carotene ( Vitamin A )

A fat soluble nutrient found in meat, fish, chicken, dairy, fruits and vegetables. Vitamin A promotes good vision and immune functioning, forms and maintains healthy skin, teeth, mucous membranes and soft tissue. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001

Biotin ( Vitamin B7 )

A water soluble nutrient generally classified with the B Vitamin group found in foods such as chocolate, egg yolk, organ meats, legumes and milk. Biotin is necessary for cell growth, metabolism of fats and amino acids as well as production of fatty acids within the body . May also help to strengthen hair and nails. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998.

Cholecalciferol ( Vitamin D )

A fat soluble nutrient found in fatty fish, cheese and direct exposure to sunlight through the skin. Vitamin D helps the body to absorb calcium needed for bone formation and maintenance, immune system booster. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2011

Choline

A water soluble nutrient found in foods such as milk, liver,eggs and peanuts. Choline plays an important part in neurological pathways for memory and has been found to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. May also help along with Folic Acid to reduce birth defects during pregnancy. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998.

Cyanocobalamin ( Vitamin B12 )

A water soluble nutrient part of the B Vitamin group found in animal products such as fish, meat, poultry, milk products and nutritional yeasts. B12 is required by the body for proper red blood cell production, energy production and nerve functioning. Generally low in vegetarian and vegans. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998.

Folic Acid

A water soluble nutrient generally classified with the B Vitamin group found in foods such as green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts, peas, enriched breads and cereals. Folic Acids main function is to help the body produce new cells . An important nutrient before and during pregnancy to help with cell development and to prevent birth defects. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998.

Inositol

A nutrient part of the B Vitamin group found in foods such as fruits, beans, nuts and grains and is also produced by the body. Inositol is a component of the cell membrane improving brain and nerve function and has also been shown to improve fertility and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Gerli S, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, Di Renzo GC. Randomized, double blind placebo-controlled trial: effects of myo-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS. European Revision of Medical Pharmacological Science. 2007;11(5):347-354.

Lutein and Zeaxanthin

A fat soluble nutrient part of the carotenoid group along with Beta-Carotene found in foods such as green leafy vegetables, kale, yellow carrots and spirulina. Both Lutein and Zeaxanthin are important to protect the eyes and can help reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration and development of cataracts. Richer S, Stiles W, Statkute L, et al. (April 2004). “Double- masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age- related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial)”. Optometry 75 (4): 216–30.

Lycopene

A red pigment part of the carotenoid group found in foods such as tomatoes, red carrots and watermelon. Lycopene has been shown to reduce the risk of various types of cancer such as protstate, stomach and lung cancer due to its high antioxidant properties. Giovannucci E,Tomatoes, Tomato-Based Products, Lycopene, and Cancer: Review of the Epidemiologic Literature.Journal of the National Cancer Institute (1999) 91 (4): 317-331

Niacin ( Vitamin B3 )

A water soluble nutrient part of the B Vitamin group found in foods such as milk, eggs, rice, fish, lean meats and poultry . Niacin helps the digestive system, skin and nervous system to function by converting food into energy. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 1998.

Pantothenic Acid ( Vitamin B5 )

A water soluble nutrient part of the B Vitamin group found in foods such as avocado, broccoli, kale, poultry, legumes and yeast. Pantothenic Acid helps with general metabolism and fatty acid production as well as the production of hormones and cholesterol within the body. Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 225.

Pyridoxine ( Vitamin B6 )

A water soluble nutrient part of the B Vitamin group found in foods such as bananas, beef, pork, nuts and corn. Pyridoxines main function within the body is to produce antibodies (which help to fight disease), maintain normal nerve function, help produce hemoglobin and break down proteins consumed through the diet. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998.

Quercitin

A pigment part of the flavonoid group found in foods such as fruits particularily citrus, red wine, onions and berries. Quercitin is an antioxidant which can help protect against free radical damage within the body and may also help to protect against heart disease. Dower JI, Geleijnse JM, Gijsbers L, Zock PL, Kromhout D, Hollman PC. Effects of the pure flavonoids epicatechin and quercetin on vascular function and cariometabolic health: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014;101(5):914-21.

Riboflavin ( Vitamin B2 )

A water soluble nutrient part of the B Vitamin group found in foods such as milk, meat, eggs, nuts and green vegetables. Riboflavin is important for red blood cell production and energy production. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998.

Thiamin ( Vitamin B1 )

A water soluble nutrient part of the B Vitamin group found in foods such as nuts, seeds, legumes, egg and fortified wholegrains such as breads, cereals and flours. Thiamin plays a significant role in carbohydrate metabolism and conversion into energy. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 1998.

Vitamin E

A fat soluble nutrient found in foods such as nuts, seeds, vegetable oils and green leafy vegetables. Its main function in the body is to work as an antioxidant. Vitamin E helps maintain cardiovascular health along with having anti-inflammatory properties. Jiang Q. Natural forms of vitamin E: metabolism, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities and their role in disease prevention and therapy. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;72:76-90.

Vitamin K ( K2 )

A fat soluble nutrient found in foods such as green leafy vegetables, cauliflower, liver, eggs and cereals. Is generally known as the blood clotting vitamin. Vitamin K also helps to maintain bone health. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001

In-organic elements required in small amounts by the body to maintain health

Boron

Boron is an essential mineral for its role in the metabolism of Vitamin D within the body. This leads to reduced rates of osteoporosis as well as increased absorption in calcium when taken along with Boron. Boron has also been shown to increase general immune function. Boron can be found in foods such as avocado, peanuts, chocolate, grape and prune juice. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001.

Calcium

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body required for the development and maintenance of bones and teeth as well as to maintain normal cardiovascular and nerve health. Calcium can be found in foods such as milk and milk products,bony fish, green leafy vegetables, nuts and legumes. Lack of Calcium can lead to osteoporosis in later stages of life. Vegetarians and vegans generally have lower levels of Calcium. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

Chromium

Chromium is an essential mineral best known for its role in glucose metabolism as it helps to maintain balanced blood glucose levels by enhancing insulin actions. Iodine can be found in foods such as brewers yeast, liver and wholegrains. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

Copper

Copper, though not regularly mentioned has a variety of roles within the body. Copper works alongside iron to form red blood cells as well as aid iron absorption, maintain the immune system, blood vessels and nerve functioning. Copper can be found in foods such as oysters and shellfish, wholegrains, organ meats, nuts and beans. Araya M, Pizarro F, Olivares M, Arredondo M, Gonzalez M, Mendez Understanding copper homeostasis in humans and copper effects on health. Biol Res. 2006;39(1):183-7. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron Manganese, Molybdenium, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, 2001

Iodine

Iodine is an essential mineral majorly known for its key role in the thyroid. Iodine is important for normal thyroid function which helps with growth and development of the central nervous system, hormone regulation and energy. Iodine can be found in foods such as iodized salt, seafood. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

Iron

Iron is an essential mineral used by the body for many functions including red blood cell production and energy. Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide and can lead to anemia, fatigue and reduced immunity. Iron is found in foods such as red meats, fish, egg, legumes and dried fruits. Pregnant women, teenagers, vegans and vegetarians are most common at risk of low iron. Rolfes, S. and Whitney, E. (2006). Understanding normal and clinical nutrition. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Magnesium

Magnesium is responsible for cardiovascular, and muscle health maintenance. Deficiency can lead to muscle cramping, high blood pressure and muscle spasms. Magnesium can be found in foods such as nuts, legumes, green leafy vegetables, seafood and chocolate. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D and fluoride. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

Manganese

Manganese is a relatively essential mineral involved in bone formation within the body. It is also involved in carbohydrate metabolism as well as helping to prevent osteoporosis. It also helps maintain blood sugar levels and cardiovascular health. Managense can be found in foods such as cereal,teas and vegetables. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

Molybdenum

Molybdenum is an mineral more so known for having soil boosting properties. There has been little research in its role within the human body however studies show a promising role as an antioxidant as well a general health booster for the body. Molybdenum can be found in foods such as lentils and beans, oats and tomatoes. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is the the second most abundant mineral in the body and plays a role in bone development as well as energy metabolism. Phosphorus is found in food sources such as meats, fish, poultry, eggs and milk. Institute of Medicine (US) Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1997

Potassium

Potassium is an essential mineral for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance within the body. Deficiency in potassium can lead to lethargy and muscle weakness. Potassium can be found in foods such as meat, milk, fruits, vegetables and grains. Rolfes, S. and Whitney, E. (2006). Understanding normal and clinical nutrition. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

Selenium

Selenium is an essential mineral with high antioxidant properties as well as a role in regulating thyroid function. Selenium can be found in foods such as seafood, meat, wholegrains, nuts and vegetables. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000.

Silicon

The function of silicon in the body has not yet been identified however it is believed to play a role in bone formation, collagen production and help to reduce atherosclerosis. Silicon can be found in food sources such as beer, coffee and water. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2001.

Sodium and Chloride

Sodium Chloride generally known as salt is typically given a bad name due to the excessive consumption in today’s society. Sodiums role in the body is to help maintain electrolyte and fuild balance as well as regulate blood pressure. The over consumption of sodium leads to common condition hypertension (high blood pressure). IOM (Institute of Medicine) Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005

Vanadium

Vanadium is a mineral which is believe to mimic insulin, improving insulin serection in the body although research has been inconclusive. Vanadium can be found in foods such as mushrooms, black pepper, parsley and dill. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

Zinc

Zinc is an essential mineral important for normal growth and development through all stages of life. It also plays a role in boosting the immune system, maintaining and strengthening hair, skin and nails a well as having wound healing properties. Zinc can be found in foods such as red meat, shellfish and wholegrains Rolfes, S. and Whitney, E. (2006). Understanding normal and clinical nutrition. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

all - heal (prunella vulgaris)

All Heal is a low growing perennial herb with ascending stems, brownish-red spikes with three flowers and four small brown ovoid nutlets native to Europe, Asia and North Africa. Medicinally, All Heal is used as a alterative, antibacterial, antiseptic and antispasmodic in conditions such as a wound healing, ulcers, sores, fevers and diarrohea. Bown, D. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society encyclopaedia of Herbs and Their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. Rafia Rasool and Bashir A. Ganai, 2013. Prunella vulgaris L.: A Literature Review on its Therapeutic Potentials. Pharmacologia, 4: 441-448.

acai (euterpe oleracea)

Acai is a palm tree native to tropical Central and South America- producing a red and purple berry. Medicinally, Acai is used as an antioxidant in conditions such as to aid weightloss and metabolic syndrome. Mertens-Talcott SU, Rios J, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Pacheco- Palencia LA, Meibohm B, Talcott ST, Derendorf H. Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2008;56(17): 7796-7802. Sun X, Seeberger J, Alberico T, et al. A ai Palm Fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp Improves Survival of Flies on a High Fat Diet. Experimental gerontology. 2010;45(3):243-251.

adhatoda (adhatoda vasica)

Adhatoda is a small evergreen bush native to India and the Himalayas. Medicinally, Adhatoda is used as a antiasthmatic, bronchodilator and expectorant for conditions such as bronchitis, asthma and respiratory infections. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

african geranium (pelargonium sidoides)

African Geranium is a rosette-like plant with aromatic heart shaped velvety leaves with distinctive reddish-purple flowers . Medicinally, African Geranium is used as an antibacterial, antiviral and immunomodulator in conditions such as the common cold, bronchitis, sinusitis and tonsiltis. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

agrimony (agrimonia eupatoria)

Agrimony is a perennial herb with toothed hairy leaves and small yellow flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Agrimony is used as a digestive tonic, diuretic and astringent in conditions such as colitis, diarrohea, cystitis, anorexia and low hydrochloric acid. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

albizia (albizia lebbeck)

Albizia is a native Indian mountain tree. Medicinally, Albizia is used anti- allergic and antimicrobial in conditions such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

alfalfa (medicago sativa)

Alfalfa is a perennial herb with deep roots, narrow ovate leaves and voilet flowers with spirally twisted fruit native to Afghanistan and India. Medicinally, Alfalfa is used as a hypoglycaemic, antibacterial, diuretic and nutritive in conditions such as diabetes, ulcers, arthritis, and digestive issues. BHP 1983: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cowling (GB): British Herbal Medical Association; 1983. Gray, Alison M., and Peter R. Flatt. “Pancreatic and extra-pancreatic effects of the traditional anti-diabetic plant, Medicago sativa (lucerne).” British Journal of Nutrition 78.02 (1997): 325-334.

aloe vera (aloe barbadensis)

Aloe Vera is a stemless plant with one to seven rosettes of thick fleshy leaves with yellow or red flower clusters native to North Africa. Medicinally, Aloe Vera is used as a laxative, wound healer and antimicrobial in conditions such as gastrointestinal inflammation, skin conditions and wounds and the occasional treatment of constipation. Reynolds, T. (ed.) (2004). Aloes: the Genus Aloe. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 3, WHO Press 1999

american ginseng (panax quinquefolius)

American Ginseng is a slender deciduous perennial plant with serrated leaves, small white flowers with red berry like fruit native to Eastern USA and Canada. Medicinally, American Ginseng is used as a digestive tonic, nervine tonic and adaptogen in conditions such as exhaustion and fatigue, memory loss and common cold. Pengelly, A., & Bennett, K.,(2011). Appalachian plant monographs: Panax quinquefolius L., American ginseng

angelica root (angelica archangelica)

Angelica Root is a biennial plant with yellow-green finely serrated leaf edges, flowers are large greenish-white with a aromatic perfume native to Northern Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Angelica Root is used as a respiratory antispasmodic, digestive bitter and carmative in conditions such loss of appetite, peptic discomfort, peripheral vascular disease and flatulence. Blumenthal, Mark, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council, 1998. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

anise seed (pimpinella anisum)

Anise Seed is a aromatic annual herb with a smooth stem, numerous small white flowers with greyish green fruit native to Turkey, Greece and Egypt. Medicinally, Anise Seed is used as a expectorant, antiparasitic and carminatve in conditions such as bronchial catarrh, spasmodic cough, and flatulent colic. Blumenthal, Mark, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, TX: American Botanical Council, 1998. Anderson LA, Newall CA, Phillipson JD.Herbal medicines: a guide for health- careprofessionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press;1996.

arjuna (terminalia arjuna)

Arjuna is a deciduous tree with a huge buttressed trunk, pinkish-grey bark native to North India. Medicinally, Arjuna is used as a antioxidant, cardioprotective, heart tonic and hypotensive in conditions such as chronic cardiovascular disease, mild congestive heart failure, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Bharani, A., A. Ganguly, and K. D. Bhargava. “Salutary effect of Terminalia arjuna in patients with severe refractory heart failure.” International Journal of Cardiology 49.3 (1995): 191-199.

arnica (arnica montana)

Arnica is a tall mountain herb with hairy leaves and deep yellow-orange flowers native to Central and Northern Europe. Medicinally, Arnica is used as an analgesic, antiseptic and venous tonic in conditions such as topical bruising, alopecia and inflammation caused by insect bites. Anderson LA, Newall CA, Phillipson JD.Herbal medicines: a guide for health-careprofessionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press;1996. Guyuron B, Totonchi A.randomized,controlled comparison between arnica and steroids in the management of postrhinoplasty,ecchymosis and edema. Plast Reconstr Surg 2007; 120(1): 271-4.

ashwagandha (withania somnifera)

Ashwagandha is a perennial shrublet with dense velvet stems and leaves, small white or yellowish flowers and spherical orange red berries native to Africa. Medicinally, Ashwagandha is used as an adaptogen, sedative, nervine tonic and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as nervous exhaustion, chronic inflammation, connective tissue disorders and anaemia. Upton R, editor. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium: Ashwagandha Root (Withania somnifera) - Standards of Analysis, Quality Control, and Therapeutics. Santa Cruz (CA): American Herbal Pharmacopoeia; 2000. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

ashweed (aegopodium podagraria l.)

Ashweed is a perennial plant that has similar flowers and leaves to the Sambucus and is native to Eurasia. Medicinally, Ashweed is used as a diuretic,antibacterial and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as arthritis, gout, liver and kidney conditions. Koyro, O. O., et al. “Study of the composition of the goutweed flowers essential oil, its renal effects and influence on uric acid exchange.” Phcog Commn 2.3 (2012): 46-9. Cisowski W. flavonoid compounds in the herb Aegopodium podagraria L. Herba Pol 1985; 31 (3-4): 137-40

astragalus (astragalus membranaceus)

Astragalus is a perennial herb with compound leaves and small pea like flowers and fibrous yellow-brown roots native to China, Mongolia, Korea and Siberia. Medicinally, Astragalus is used as an immunomodulator, adaptogen, cardiotonic and diuretic in conditions such as treatment of colds and influenza, chronic diarrohea, uterine bleeding and low endurance. Shao BM, Xu W, Dai H, et al. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;320(4):1103-1111. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

atractylodes (atractylodes macrocephala)

Atractylodes is a tall perennial plant with red flowers native to China, Japan and Korea. Medicinally, Atractylodes is used as an adaptogen, bitter tonic, digestive and diuretic in conditions such as stress, exhaustion, indigestion, diarrohea and oedema. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicin. Wang R, Zhou G, Wang M, Peng Y, Li X. The Metabolism of Polysaccharide from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz and Its Effect on Intestinal Microflora. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

bacial skullcap (scutellaria baicalensis)

Bacial Skullcap is a spreading perennial herb with simple leaves, blue- purple flowers and fruits shaped like tuberculate nutlets native to Eastern Asia and Russia.Medicinally, Bacial Skullcap is used as an anti-inflammatory, antifibriotic and neuroprotective in conditions such as allergies, hayfever, asthma, ezcema and vomiting. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

barberry (berberis vulgaris)

Barberry is a thorny shrub with oval matte green leaves, yellow flowers and red berries native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Barberry is used as a antiemetic, antibacterial, anti- inflammatory and digestive tonic in conditions such as gallbladder disorders, acne, eczema and gout. Imanshahidi M, Hosseinzadeh H. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine. Phytother Res. 2008;22(8):999-1012. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

barley (hordeum vulgare)

Barley is a annual grass with pale green, linear leaves, flowers produced in a cylindrical spikes with golden to purple to black seeds in a hulls native to Middle East. Medicinally, Barley is used as a appetitie stimulant, bitter tonic in conditions such as indigestion, diabetes management, coughs and high cholesterol. The Royal Horticultural Society new encyclopedia of herbs & their uses, Deni Bown - Dorling Kindersley - 2008.

bearberry (arctostaphylos uva-ursi)

Bearberry is a small creeping evergreen bush with white or pink flowers and red berries native to the Artic and Europe. Medicinally, Bearberry is used a a astrignent, urinary antiseptic and diuretic in conditions such as urinary tract infection, prostatitis and cystitis. Godfrey A, Saunders PR, Barlow K, Gilbert C, Gowan M, Smith F. Principles and Practices of Naturopathic Botanical Medicine, Volume 1: Botanical Medicine Monographs. Toronto (ON): CCNM Press; 2010. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

beth root (trillium erectum)

Beth Root is a low perennial with stout stems bearing three ovate leaves and large dark purple flowers native to Eastern North America. Medicinally, Beth Root is used as a uterine tonic, antihaemorrhagic and astringent in conditions such as dysfunctional uterine bleeding, haematuria and menopausal depression. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus)

Bilberry is a deciduous shrublet with small toothed leaves, pale white-pinkish bell shaped flowers with purplish blue fruit native to the cooler climates of the northern hemisphere including Europe, Asia and North America. Medicinally, Bilberry is used as an antioxidant, astringent, anti-inflammatory and vasoprotector in conditions such as varicose veins, blood flow disorders, night blindess and visual fatigue. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. Herbalgram online database.

bisort (persicaria bisorta)

Bisort is a small weedy perennial with long narrow leaves and pink flowers with dark spikes native to Siberia, Japan and England. Medicinally, Bisort is used as antidiarroheal, astringent and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as diarrohea, cystitis, dysentery and nasal catarrh. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

bitter melon (momordica charantia)

Bitter Melon is a climbing plant with oblong fruit resembling a cucumber that is bitter in taste and its native to tropical areas of Asia, Amazon and Africa. Medicinally, Bitter Melon is used as a hypoglycaemic, antiviral and antimircobial in conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, digestive conditions and high cholesterol. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

black alder (alnus glutinosa)

Alder is a deciduous tree with purple to grey brown bark, pendent twigs, obovate leaves and flowers producing ovoid fruits native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Black Alder is used as an astringent and antibacterial in conditions such as rheumatism, to control bleeding, throat infections, wounds and scabies. Bown, D. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society new encyclopedia of herbs & their uses. London: Dorling Kindersley. Middleton, P.; Stewart, F.; Al-Qahtani, S.; Egan, P.; O’Rourke, C.; Abdulrahman, A.; Byres, M.; Middleton, M.; Kumarasamy, Y.; Shoeb, M.; Nahar, L.; Delazar, A.; Sarker, S. D. (2005). “Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and General Toxicity of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior and Papaver rhoeas”. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 4 (2): 101–103

black cohosh root (cimicifuga racemosa)

Black Cohosh is a perennial herb with large compound leaves, a slender cluster of white flowers and black roots native to Canada and Northern USA. Medicinally, Black Cohosh is used as an anti- inflammatory, antitussive and vasodilator in conditions such as the treatment of menopausal symtpoms, sleeping disorders and muscular rheumatism. Braun L, Cohen M. Herbs & natural supplements: an evidence-based guide. 2nd ed. Marrickville (NSW): Debbie Lee; 2007. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine.The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. Herbalgram online database.

black haw (viburnum prunifolium)

Black Haw is a woody deciduous shrub with lobed leaves and clusters of small white flowers with edible black berries native to North America. Medicinally, Black Haw is used as an anti-asthmatic, anti-spasmodic and hypotensive in conditions such as dysmenorrhea, false labour pains and asthma. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

black horehound (ballota nigra)

Black Horehound is unpleasant smelling perennial plant with downy leaves and purple flowers native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Black Horehound is used as as antiemetic, spasmolytic and sedative in conditions such as nausea, vomiting and nervous dyspepsia. Daels-Rakotoarison DA, Seidel V, Gressier B, et al. Neurosedative and antioxidant activities of phenylpropanoids from Ballota nigra. Arzneim Forsch 2000;50:16-23. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

black pepper (piper nigrum)

Black Pepper is an everclimbing vine producing white, black and green peppercorns native to Sumatra, Java and Penang. Medicinally, Black Pepper is used as a stomachic, antispasmodic, aromatic and carminative in conditions such as digestive disorders, slow metabolism, constipation and arthritic disorders. Liu Y, Yadev VR, Aggarwal BB, Nair MG. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B. Natural Product Communications. 2010;5:1253–7.

black walnut (juglans nigra)

Black Walnut is a large deciduous tree with grey-black bark, large leaves and separate sexes flowers, male being drooping catkins and terminal female flowers native to Eastern North America. Medicinally, Black Walnut is used as a laxative, astringent and purgative in conditions such as eczema, ulcers and as a gargle for sore throats. Fischer TC, e. (2016). Potent and specific bactericidal effect of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. Herbalgram online database.

blackcurrant (ribes nigrum)

Blackcurrant is a deep purple black berry native to Central and Northern Europe and Siberia. Medicinally, Blackcurrant is used as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral in conditions such as glaucoma, peripheral arterial disease, exercise induced inflammation and muscle stiffness. Lyall KA. et al. Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (2009) Jul;297(1):R70-81. Dalg rd et al. Supplementation with orange and blackcurrant juice, but not vitamin E, improves inflammatory markers in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Br J Nutr (2009) vol. 101 (2) pp. 263-9 Nakaishi H. et al. Effects of black current anthocyanoside intake on dark adaptation and VDT work-induced transient refractive alteration in healthy humans. Altern Med Rev. (2000) Dec;5(6):553-62

bladderwack (fucus vesiculosus)

Bladderwack is a seaweed found on the North Atlantic coast. Medicinally, Bladderwack is used as a thyroid stimulant, antirheumatic and anti-obesity in conditions such as thyroid dysfunction, rheumatoid arthritis and to combat obesity associated with hypothyroidism. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

blessed thistle (cnicus benedictus)

Blessed Thistle is a thistle like herb with lobed hairy leaves and yellow flowers native to Western Asia and the Mediterranean region. Medicinally, Blessed Thistle is used as a antidiarroheal, bitter tonic and stomachic in conditions such as loss of appetite, dyspepsia and flatulence. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

bloodroot (sanguinaria canadensis)

Bloodroot is a small perennial herb producing a red sap with solitary leaves and flowers with a fleshy red rhizome native to North America. Medicinally, Bloodroot is a hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and expectorant in conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, laryngitis and peripheral circulation. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

blue cohosh (caulophyllum thalictroides)

Blue Cohosh is a perennial with yellowish green flowers native to USA and Cananda. Medicinally, Blue Cohosh is used as a uterine tonic, antirheumatic and antispasmodic in conditions such as dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, rheumatic pains and endometriosis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Compendium, A handbook of scientific information one widely used plant drugs, Volume 3, BHMA, Dorset, 1992. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983.

blue flag (iris versicolor)

Blue Flag is a perennial herb with sword shaped leaves and blue violet flowers native to North America. Medicinally, Blue Flag is used as a alternative, diuretic, laxative and lymphatic tonic in conditions such as constipation associated with poor liver function, eczema and psoriasis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

boldo (peumus boldus)

Boldo is a evergreen shrub with broad leathery leaves and bell-shaped flowers with edible yellow berries native to Chile. Medicinally, Boldo is used as a hepatotonic, sedative and diuretic in conditions such as mild dyspepsia and spastic gastrointestinal complaints. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

boneset (eupatorium perfoliatum)

Boneset is a perennial plant with a hairy cylindrical stem, large lance shaped leaves with prominent veins and a sharp point, with numerous white floret flowers that are aromatic and bitter in taste native to North America. Medicinally, Bonset is used as a stimulant and laxative in conditions such as indigestion, constipation, the common cold and fevers. Castleman M. The Healing Herbs. New York: Bantam Books 1991, 124-8. British Herbal Medicine Association Scientific Committee. British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. West Yorks, UK: British Herbal Medicine Association, 1983.

borage (borago officinalis)

Borage is a plant with rough, prickly white hairs, hollow succulent dark green and wrinkled leaves with bright blue star shaped leaves with brownish black nutlet fruits native to Europe. Medicinally, Borage is used as a diuretic, demulcent and emollient in conditions such as influenza, bronchitis, nasal inflammation and joint arthritis. Zurier RB, Rossetti RG, Jacobson EW, et al. Gamma-linolenic acid treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 1996;39:1808-17. Wren RC. Potter’s New Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. Essex, England: C.W. Daniel and Co., 1988, 41.

boswellia (boswellia serrata)

Boswellia is a small tree with a smooth papery bark and pale yellow star shaped flowers native to East Africa, China, Somalia and Arabia. Medicinally, Boswellia is used an anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-proliferative in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, osteoarthritis and cysts. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Grover AK, Samson SE. Benefits of antioxidant supplements for knee osteoarthritis: rationale and reality. Nutrition Journal. 2015;15:1.

brahmi (bacopa monnieri)

Brahmi is a succulent perennial creeping plant native to India and Australia. Medicinally, Brahmi is used as an antioxidant, adaptogen, brain and nerve tonic and anioxolytic in conditions such as anxiety, mental exhaustion, poor memory, concentration and nerve damage. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B. Effects of a Standardized Bacopa monnieri Extract on Cognitive Performance, Anxiety, and Depression in the Elderly: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled Trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2008;14(6):707-713.

bryony (bryonia dioica)

Bryony is a climbing vine with green flowers and red berries native to Central and Southern Europe. Medicinally, Bryony is used as an antirheumatic, expectorant and diaphoretic in conditions such as bronchitis, mylagia and various rheumatic conditions . British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

buchu (barosma betulina)

Buchu is a small shrub with stiff yellow- green leaves, white and purple star shaped flowers native to South Africa. Medicinally, Buchu is used as a urinary antiseptic and diuretic in conditions such as cystitis, urinary tract infection and prostatis. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Chevallier A. Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants . New York, NY: DK Publishing. 1996;67.

bugleweed (lycopus spp.)

Bugleweed is a tall perennial herb with square stems and lance shaped leaves producing small purple spotted white or pink flowers native to Europe, Asia and North America. Medicinally, Bugleweed is used as a antihemorrhagic, cardiotonic, diuretic and sedative in conditions such as nervous tachycardia, Graves disease, productive coughs and tremor. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

bupleurum (radix bupleuri)

Bupleurum is a tall woody perennial herb native to Northern Asia, China and Europe. Medicinally, Bupleurum is used for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with the common cold, amenorrhoea and autoimmune diseases. Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (English ed.). Guangzhou, Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 1992. Chang HM, But PPH, eds. Pharmacology and applications of Chinese materia medica, Vol.2. Singapore, World Scientific Publishing, 1987.

burdock (articum lappa)

Burdock is a robust biennial plant with a hairy stem, large leaves and rounded purple- red flowers with bristly hooked bracts native to Africa, Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Burdock is used as an anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory in conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, gout and arthritis. Chan YS, Cheng LN, Wu JH, et al. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology. 2011;19(5):245-254. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

butchers broom (ruscus aculeatus)

Butchers Broom is a evergreen perennial shrub with false leaves, small greenish flowers and bright red berries native to Western Europe and the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Butchers Broom is used as a venotonic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic in conditions such as chronic venous insufficency, tired and heavy legs, oedema and haemorrhoids. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

butterbur (oetasites hybridus)

Butterbur is a fleshy, stout, creeping root with flower heads in crowned clusters on separate stalks with spikes and pale reddish purple in colour native to Britain. Medicinally, Butterbur is used as a heart stimulant, cardiotonic, analgesic and diuretic in conditions such as allergy, asthma and migraines. Agosti R, Duke RK, Chrubasik JE, et al. Effectiveness of Petasites hybridus preparations in the prophylaxis of migraine: a systematic review. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9– 10):743–746. Butterbur. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on April 29, 2011.

butternut bark (juglans cinerea)

Butternut Bark is a tall tree with light grey/ large compound leaves, producing walnut fruit native to North America. Medicinally, Butternut Bark is used as an alterative and laxative in conditions such as constipation, liver dysfunction and skin disorders. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 . Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

calendula (calendula officinalis)

Calendula is a perennial plant with large yellow or orange flower heads native to Mediterranean Europe. Medicinally, Calendula is used as a anti-inflammatory, astringent, wound healer and antiseptic in conditions such as the treatment of superficial cuts and inflammation of the skin, gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea. Basch E, Bent S, Foppa I, et al. Marigold (Calendula officinalis):An evidence-based systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(3-4):135-59. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

california poppy (eschscholzia californica)

California Poppy is a perennial plant with thin stems, pale yellow-orange flowers with four leaves native to the USA. Medicinally, California Poppy is used as a hypnotic and sedative in hyperactivity and insomnia. Mills S, Bone K. 2005. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

cascara sagrada (rhamnus purshiana)

Cascara is a deciduous shrub with reddish- brown bark, hairy twigs, green leaves and small green flowers native to North West America and South West Canada. Medicinally, Cascara is used as a laxative and antiparastic in conditions such as constipation. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

catnip (nepeta cataria)

Catnip is a perennial herb with hairy leaves and small white, pink or blue flowers arranged in clusters native to Europe. Medicinally, Catnip is used as a sedative, calmative and astringent in conditions such as nervous dyspepsia, colic, headaches and insomnia. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

cat’s claw (uncaria tomentosa)

Cat’s Claw is a woody, thorny creeper with a long main stem and quadrangle branches with claw like thorns native to Central America . Medicinally, Cats Claw is used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as arthritis, rheumatism, gastric ulcers and hayfever. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

cayenne pepper (capsicum minimum)

Cayenne is a small perennial shrub with dark green leaves, white flowers and green to orange-red upright berries with flat white seeds native to Central America, Medicinally, Cayenne is used as a stimulant, spasmolytic, diaphoretic and vasostimulant in conditions such as painful muscle spasms, arthritis, rheumatism, digestive disturbances and poor circulation. Rains C, Bryson HM. Topical Capsaicin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis. Drugs and Aging. 1998;7(4):317-328 The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

celery seed (apium graveolens)

Celery Seed is a strong smelling biennial herb with angular hollow stems and fan shaped leaflets native to Southern Europe, Africa and Asia.Medicinally, Celery Seed is used as an anti- inflammatory, antirheumatic, antispetic and antispasmodic in conditions such as rheumatism, arthritis, gout and urinary tract infections. Madhavi D, Kagan D, Rao V, Murray M. A pilot study to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of a celery extract in mild to moderate hypertensive patients. Natural Medicine Journal 2013;4(4):1-3. Atta AH, Alkofahi A. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;60:117-124. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983.

chamomile (matricaria recutita)

Chamomile is an annual herb with feathery leaves and simple white and yellow daisy like flowers heads native to Eastern Europe and Argentina. Medicinally, Chamomile is used as an anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, carminative and antiseptic in conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders such as dyspepsia, flatulence and skins irritations. McKay DL, Blumberg JB. A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.). Phytother Res. Review . 2006 Jul;20(7):519- 30. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

chaste tree (vitex agnus-castus)

Chaste Tree is a small tree with hairy compound leaves, oblong clusters of lilac to blue flowers with four seeded berries with a aromatic peppermint like odour. Medicinally, Chaste Tree is used as an ovulation stimulant, progesteronic, carminative and galactgogue in conditions such as premenstrual syndromes, menstrual irregularities, infertility and poor lactation. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

chickeweed (stellaria media)

Chickweed is a small creeping annual herb with soft stems, oblong leaves and white star shaped flowers with nodding fruits native to Europe, North Africa and North Asia. Medicinally,Chickweed is used as an antitussive, expectorant and wound healer topically in conditions such as ezcema, abcessand rheumatism. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

chicory (cichorium intybus)

Chicory is a perennial tap root with numerous lateral spreading branches, thickly covered hairy speading leaves with a cluster of two or three flower head with blooms that are a tint of blue in color. Native to England and Ireland. Medicinally, Chicory is used as a general tonic, diurectic and laxative in conditions such as jaundice, digestive complaints and and blood disorders. Hamel, Paul B. and Mary U. Chiltoskey 1975 Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, N.C. Herald Publishing Co. (p. 29) Howard, Michael. Traditional Folk Remedies (Century, 1987), p.120.

chinese wormwood (artemisia annua)

Chinese Wormwood is a sweet, pungent, bushy annual plant with feathery leaves and small cream white flower heads native to Eurasia. Medicinally, Chinese Wormwood is used an antiparasitic and digestive bitter in conditions such as malaria and other parastic infections. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

cinammon (cinnamomum cassia)

Cinnamon is medium sized evergreen tree with smooth pale bark, leathery leaves and small flowers bearing dark purple fruits native to Sri Lanka and Southern India. Medicinally, Cinnamon is used as a carminative, antidiarrohea and antiemetic in conditions such as dyspeptic conditions, intestinal colic, diarrohea, common cold and nausea. Iman M. Hamad, Adil M.A. Salman, Wala A. M.A Salman, Elniema M. Abdelkhalig,Effect of Cinnamomum Cassia on Lipid Profile of Apparently Healthy Subjects .Journal of Forest Products and Industries. 2015;4(4):144-149. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

cinquefoil (potentlla reptans)

Cinquefoil is a herbaceous flowering plant with trailing stems, yellow flowers with heart shaped petals and leaves borne from long stalks native to Eurasia and North Africa. Medicinally, Cinquefoil is used as an astringent, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic in conditions such as gastrointestinal issues, nerve pain, tooth ache and arthritis. Tomovic, Marina T., et al. “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Potentilla reptans L.” Acta Pol Pharm 72.1 (2015): 137-45. Tomczyk M1, Latté KP.Potentilla--a review of its phytochemical and pharmacological profile.J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Mar 18;122(2):184-204.

citrus seed (citrus rutaceae)

Citrus Seeds are predominately obtained through grapefruit native to South and South East Asia. Medicinally, Citrus seeds are used as an antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic in conditions such as fungal growth in the digestive tract and intestinal dysbiosis. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

cleavers (galium aparine)

Cleaver s is a creeping and climbing perennial weedy herb with hooked prickles on its leaves and small white flowes native to Europe, North Africa and Asia. Medicinally, Cleavers is used as a diuretic, astringent and lymphatic tonic in conditions such as psoarsis, enlarged lymph nodes and dysuria. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

clove (syzygium aromaticum)

Clove is a small bushy evergreen tree with large leaves and sanguine flowers grouped in terminal clusters native to Maluku Islands in Indonesia. Medicinally, Clove is used as an anti-microbial, antioxidant and analgesic in conditions such as infections, wounds, bronchitis and as a circulatory stimulant. Inder Singh Rana, Aarti Singh Rana, Ram Charan Rajak. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2011;42(4) Li HY, Lee BK, Kim JS, Jung SJ, Oh SB. Eugenol inhibits ATP-induced P2X currents in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;12(6):315–321. Gül in I, Elmasta M, Aboul-Enein HY. Antioxidant activity of clove oil-A powerful antioxidant source. Arab J Chem. 2012;5(4):489–499.

codonopsis (codonopsis pilosula)

Codonopsis is a twining, sprawling herb with yellowish purple-tinted bell shaped flowers. Medicinally, Codonopsis is used as an adaptogen, anti-inflammatory, blood sugar regulator and blood tonic in conditions such as stress, exhaustion, hypoglycaemia, anaemia and indigestion. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

coleus (coleus forskohlii)

Coleus is a perennial herb with fleshy fiberous roots native to India, Burma and Thailand. Medicinally, Coleus is used as a hypotensive, vasodilator, antispasmodic and cardiotonic in conditions such as high blood pressure, prevention of cardiovascular disease, digestive weakness and may be able to assist weight loss. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

comfrey (symphytum officinale)

Comfrey is a thick, hairy perennial shrub with purple,blue or whitish flowers native to Europe and some parts of Asia . Medicinally, Comfrey is used to heal bruises, pulled muscles, ligaments or fractures. Comfrey is a used in topical treatments only. Grube B, Grunwald J, Krug L, Staiger C. Efficacy of comfrey root (Symphyti offic. radix) extract ointment in the treatment of patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee: results of a double-blind randomised, bicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(1):2-10. Staiger C. Comfrey: a clinical overview. Phytother Res. 2012 Oct;26(10):1441-8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4612.

corn silk (zea mays)

Corn Silk is a robust annual grass with thick stems,broad sheathing leaves and long visible beard-like masses native to the USA. Medicinally, Corn Silk is used as a diuretic, antilithic and urinary demulcent in conditions such as cystitis, prostatitis and chronic inflammations of the urinary system. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

corydalis (corydalis ambigua)

Corydalis is a perennial plant with purple green flowers native to Manchuria and Japan. Medicinally, Corydalis may be used as a bitter, sedative and analgesic in conditions such as visceral pain, insomnia, arrythmia and dysmenorrhoea. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

couch grass (agropyron repens)

Couch Grass is a perennial weed native to Asia, Europe, North and South America. Medicinally, Couch Grass is used as a diuretic and demuclent in conditions such as urinary tract infections, kidney and bladder inflammation, gout, rheumatism and prostatis. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

cramp bark (viburnum opulus)

Cramp Bark is a deciduous shrub with lobed leaves, rounded clusters of white flowers and bright red berries indigenous to Europe. Medicinally, Cramp Bark is used as an antispasmodic, sedative and astringent in conditions such as spasmodic muscular cramping, uterine dysfunction, ovarian and uterine pain. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon)

Cranberry is a everygreen shrub producing red black fruits native to North America. Medicinally, Cranberry is used as a preventative for bladder infections, ulcers as well as being a potent antioxidant. Burger O, Ofek I, Tabak M, et al. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2000 Dec;29(4):295-301.

cranesbill (geranium maculatum)

Cranesbill is a long stalked plant with hairy flowering stems producing several rose-purple flowers native to North America. Medicinally, Cranesbill is used as an antihaemorrhagic, wound healer and antidiarroheal in conditions such as diarrohea, duodenal ulcers and peptic ulcers. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

crataeva (crataeva nurvala)

Crataeva is a hardy small tree with pale yellow flowers native to Central India. Medicinally, Crataeva may be used as a anti- inflammatory, bladder tonic and antiseptic in conditions such as incontinence, urinary tract infection and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

curcumin (rhizoma curcumae)

Curcumin is a tall perennial plant with a large ovoid rhizome, flesh orange in color native to South East Asia. Medicinally, Curcumin is used as a anti-inflammatory antioxidant and hepatoprotective in conditions such as atonic dyspepsia, rheumatoid arthritis, peptic ulcers and minor biliary dysfunction. Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (English ed.). Guangzhou, Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 1992.Handbook of African medicinal plants. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, 1993. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

damiana (turnera diffusa)

Damiana is an aromatic shrubby perennial with simple toothed leaves and yellow solitary flowers native to Mexico and the West Indies. Medicinally, Damiana is used as an antidepressant, male tonic and nervine tonic in conditions such as anxiety and nervous tension, depression, constipation and dyspepsia. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

dan shen (salvia miltiorrhiza)

Dan Shen is a tall plant with red roots native to China. Medicinally, Dan Shen is used as a cardioprotective, hypotensive, vasodilator and anticoagulant in conditions such as myocardial ischaemia, hypertension, angina and chronic liver disease. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

dandelion (taraxacum officinale)

Dandelion is a leafy perennial with a rosette of toothed leaves and yellow solitary flowers native to Eastern Europe. Medicinally, Dandelion is used as a bitter digestive tonic, diuretic, laxative and antirheumatic in conditions such as loss of appetite, dyspepsia, diuresis stimulation and constipation. Clare BA, Conroy RS, Spelman K. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Aug;15(8):929-34. Sweeney B, Vora M, Ulbricht C, Basch E. Evidence-based systematic review of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) by Natural Standard Research Collaboration. J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(1):79-93

devils claw (harpagophytum procumbens)

Devils Claw is a weedy perennial herb with greyish-green leaves, tubular yellow-purple flowers with hooked, claw-like fruit native to Southern and Eastern Africa. Medicinally, Devils Claw is used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, digestive tonic and hypotensive in conditions such as the pain associated with rheumatic conditions, dyspeptic or appetite complaints, lower back pain and degenerative diseases. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999, Pg 254.

dill (anethum graveolens)

Dill is a aromatic herb with bright green leaves native to South West Asia, Medicinally, Dill is used as an aromatic, digestive tonic and carminative in conditions such as childhood colic, flatulent dyspepsia and stomach aches. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

dong quai (angelica polymorpha)

Dong Quai is a fragrant perennial with a purplish stem, pinnate leaves and multiflorous umbel with greenish-white flowers native to China. Medicinally, Dong Quai is used as an anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, uterine antispasmodic and blood tonic in conditions such as the treatment of menstrual disorders, abdominal pain, constipation and anaemia. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999, Pg 254.

echinacea (echinacea purpurea)

Echinacea is a perennial herb with stout bristly stems, linear leaves and solitary large spreading dull purple ray flowers. Medicinally, Echinacea is used as an alterative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic and immunomodulatory in conditions such as colds and flus, immune response stimulation, respiratory and urinary tract infections. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999, Pg 254.

elderflower (sambucus nigra)

Elderflower is a small tree with sparse pithy stems, compound leaves and a multitude of white flowers with fleshy black purple fruit native to Europe, Western Asia and Africa. Medicinally, Elderflower is used as a anticatarrhal, diaphoretic and laxative in conditions such as fever, chills, common cold and sinusitis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

elecampane (inula helenium)

Elecampane is a leafy perennial plant with broad toothed leaves and yellow flowers native to South- Eastern Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Elecampane is used as a expectorant, antiseptic and antispasmodic in conditions such as bronchial catarrh, irritating cough in children and bronchial asthma. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

euphorbia (euphorbia hirta)

Euphorbia is a slender, tall plant producing small yellow flowers with reddish seeds. Medicinally, Euphorbia is used as a antiasthmatic, antispasmodic and expectorant in conditions such as asthma and bronchitis, intestinal disorders and spasm. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

eyebright (euphrasia officinalis)

Eyebright is a small plant with deeply toothed leaves bearing white/pink flowers with purple centre native to Europe. Medicinally, Eyebright is used as an anti-inflammatory, astringent and mucous tonic in conditions such as sinusitis, conjunctivitis and nasal catarrh. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

false unicorn root (chamalerium luteim)

False Unicorn Root is a perennial plant with small greenish-white flowers amongst crowded spikes native to North America. Medicinally, False Unicorn Root has been used as a uterine tonic, digestive tonic, menstrual regulator and diuretic in conditions such as amenorrhoea and other menstrual irregularities, endometriosis and polycystic ovarian syndrome. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

fennel (foeniculum vulgarae)

Fennel is a perennial aromatic herb with tiny yellow flowers and elongated brown fruits native to Europe and the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Fennel is used as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and diuretic in conditions such as dyspepsia, bloating and flatulence, as well as being a expectorant in mild respiratory inflammation. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicin . World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

fenugreek (trigonella foenum-graecum)

Fenugreek is a small aromatic annual herb with a green to purple solitary stem, trifoliate leaves and pale whitish- yellow flowers with long thin fruits native to Mediterranean, China and India. Medicinally, Fenugreek is used as a demulcent, emollient, laxative and nutritive in conditions such as anorexia, gastritis, high cholesterol and hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

feverfew (tanacetum pathenium)

Feverfew is a perennial plant with greenish- yellow leaves, central yellow flowers with daisy like heads native to South-East Europe. Medicinally, Feverfew is used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, antispasmodic and analgesic in conditions such as prevention of migraines, allergies and sensitivities and menopausal symptoms. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine.European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

feverwort (eupatorium perforliatum)

Feverwort is a perennial plant with lance shaped leaves and clusters of purple and white flowers native to Northern America. Medicinally, Feverwort is used as a diaphoretic in conditions such as acute bronchitis, respiratory congestion and influenza. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

figwort (scrophularia nodosa)

Figwort is a perennial herb with leafy branches and clusters of small brownish red flowers native to Britain. Medicinally, Figwort is used as a alterative, anti-inflammatory and mild diuretic in conditions such as chronic skin disease, eczema and psoriasis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 . Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

fox glove (digitalis purpurea)

Fox Glove is a herbaceous perennial with spirally arranged leaves, covered in grey- white glandular hair with tubular shaped purple flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Fox Glove is used as a circulatory stimulant in conditions such as heart failure. Hood, Jr. WB, Dans AL, Guyatt GH, Jaeschke R, McMurray JJ. Digitalis for treatment of congestive heart failure in patients in sinus rhythm. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2004;(2) Navarro E, Alonso PJ, Alonso SJ, et al. Cardiovascular activity of a methanolic extract of Digitalis purpurea spp. heywoodii . J Ethnopharmacol . 2000;71(3):437-442

fringe tree (chionanthus virginicus)

Fringe Tree is a large deciduous shrub with bright green leaves and a cluster of white flowers with blue berries. Medicinally, Fringe Tree is used as a bitter tonic, laxative and antiemetic in conditions such as liver disease, enlarged spleen, cholecystitis and portal hypertension. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

fumitory (fumaria officinalis)

Fumitory is a small annual plant with a hollow blue green stem with bitter leaves and yellow whitish flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Fumitory is used as an alterative, cholagogue, diuretic and laxative in conditions such as digestive weakness, eczema, conjunctivitis and liver disorders. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

garlic (allium sativum)

Garlic is a kitchen perennial herb with fleshy slightly greyish leaves, pinkish white flowers heads surrounded by a white papery sheath native to Middle East and Central Asia. Medicinally, Garlic is used as a chemoprotective, systemic antiviral, antimicrobial and antifungal in conditions such as chronic bronchitis, reoccurent colds, hyperlipadaemia, vascular disease & coughs. British herbal pharmacopoeia, Vol. 1. London, British Herbal Medicine Association. 1990. H su HY. Oriental materia medica, a concise guide. Long Beach, CA, Oriental Healing. Arts Institute, 1986:735–736 British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael.

gentian (gentiana lutea)

Gentian is a perennial plant with beet like roots and orange- yellow, open-stellate flowers native to Central and Southern Europe. Medicinally, Gentian is used as a bitter digestive tonic in conditions such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, distention and flatulence. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

german chamomile (chamomila recutita)

German Chamomile is an annual herb with white and yellow daisy like flower heads native to eastern Europe and Argentina. Medicinally, German Chamomile is used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, sedative and antispetic in conditions such as various gastrointestinal disorders (IBS, colitis) as well as restlessness asssociated with insomnia and inflammatory skin diseases. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

ginger (zingiber officinale)

Ginger is a herbaceous perennial with large leaves developing from a branched rhizome with flowers in a dense scaly spike native to India. Medicinally, Ginger is used as an antiemtic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and carminative in conditions such as nausea and vomiting, dyspepsia, flatulence and motion sickness. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

ginkgo (ginkgo biloba)

Gingko is a deciduous tree with grey bark and branches in a crown formation. The leaves are fan shaped green and is native to China and Japan. Medicinally, Ginkgo is used as an antioxidant, circulatory stimulant, cognition enhancer and venotonic in conditions such as dementia, poor memory and concentration, dizziness and tinnitus. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999, Pg 254. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

globe artichoke (cynara scolymus)

Globe Artichoke is a robust thistle like perennial with large silvery grey leaves with purple flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Globe Artichoke may be used as a bitter/digestive tonic, hypocholesterolaemic and diuretic in conditions such as digestive disturbances, high cholesterol and liver damage. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

goat’s rue (galega officinalis)

Goat’s Rue is a perennial herb with compound leaves bearing lilac spikes to white flower clusters native to Europe and Northern Arabia.Medicinally, Goat’s Rue is used as a hypoglycaemic and lactation promoter in condtions such as diabetes mellitus and conditions surrounding poor lactation. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

golden root (rhodiola rosea)

Golden Root is a perennial plant with a thick rhizome and yellow flowers native to South West China and the Himylayas. Medicinally, Rhodiola is used as a adaptogen, tonic, antioxidant and anti- inflammatory in conditions to improve mental and physical performance, fatigue, anxiety and stress resistance. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

golden seal (hydrastis canadensis)

Golden Seal is a perennial herb with a single radical leaf, short stem bearing two serrate leaves with greenish-white flowers native to North America. Medicinally, Golden Seal is used as an antimicrobial, bitter tonic and mucous membrane tonic in conditions such as digestive disorders, menorrhagia, respiratory catarrh and atonic dyspepsia. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

goldenrod (solidago virgaurea)

Goldenrod is a erect herb with oblong leaves and numerous yellow flower heads native to Europe, Asia and North Africa. Medicinally, Goldenrod is used as an anticatarrhal, respiratory antiseptic, carminative and mucus tonic in conditions such as influenza, sinusitis, flatulent dyspepsia and throat infections. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

gotu kola (centella asiatica)

Gotu Kola is a small herbaceous creeping plant with simple round leaves and inconspicuous flowers native to Africa, Madagascar, The Americas and Australia. Medicinally, Gotu Kola is used as an adaptogen, wound healer, venous support and nerve tonic in conditions such as wounds, burns, ulcers, rheumatic conditions and circulation. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Compendium, A handbook of scientific information one widely used plant drugs, Volume 3, BHMA, Dorset, 1992. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

grapeseed extract (vitis vinifera)

Grapeseed is a woody climber with large lobed leaves, climbing tendrils and green or red berries with fleshy pulp native to the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Grapeseed is used as a antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet in conditions such as poor peripheral circulation, varicose veins, retinal damage and connective tissue disorders. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Thébaut J-F, Thébaut P, Vin F. 1985. Study of Endotelon in the functional manifestations of peripheral venous insufficiency. Results of a double-blind study of 92 patients. tude de l’Endotelon dans les manifestations fonctionelles de l’insuffisance veineuse périphérique. Résultats d’une étude en double aveugle portant sur 92 patients. Gazette Médicale 92(1):96-100

gravel root (eupatorium purpureum)

Gravel Root is a perennial plant bearing tinged purple,creamy white flowers native to North America. Medicinally, Gravel Root is used as a diuretic and antirheumatic in conditions such as cystitis, gout and rheumatism. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

greater celandine (chelidonium majus)

Greater Celandine is a perennial plant with yellow green leaves and four-petalled orange flowers. Medicinally, Greater Celandine is used as a antimicrobial, antiviral and spasmodic in conditions such as gastrointestinal spasm, minor gallbladder disorders, bloating and flatulence. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

green tea (camellia sinensis)

Green Tea is an evergreen shrub with dark glossy leaves and white flowers native to southern and eastern Asia. Medicinally, Green tea is used as a antioxidant, anti- bacterial, diuretic, anti -viral in conditions such as atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, liver protector and cancer prevention. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Chen Z, Lin Z. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues . Journal of Zhejiang University Science B. 2015;16(2):87-102.

grindelia (grindelia camporum)

Grindelia is a perennial plant with toothed leaves and yellow flowers that secretes a sticky resin and is native to South-Western USA and Mexico. Medicinally, Grindelia is used as an antispasmodic, expectorant and anticatarrhal in conditions such as asthma, bronchitis and whooping cough. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

ground ivy (glechoma hederacea)

Ground Ivy is a perennial herb with creeping hairy, non flowering stems with blue-violet flowers native to British Isles, Western Europe, Asia and Japan. Medicinally, Ground Ivy is used as an astringent, diuretic, stomachic and wound-healer in conditions such as bronchitis, cystitis, diarrohea and boils British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

guarana (paullinia cupana)

Guarana is a climbing shrub with divided compound leaves, flowers yellow pannicles and pear shaped fruit native to Brazil. Medicinally, Guarana is used as a nervine stimulant and antidepressant in conditions such as exhaustion, chronic head ache and menstrual depression. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 349. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, 2d ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996, 293-4.

gymnema (gymnema sylvestre)

Gymnema is a large woody climbing plant native to Australia and Central India. Medicinally, Gymnema is used as a blood sugar regulator, appetitie inhibitor and astringent in condition such as diabetes mellitus, to reduce the onset of sweet cravings and assist in weightloss. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

hawthorn (crataegus monogyna)

Hawthorn is a shrub with bright green lobes, thorny branches and white flowers native to Europe, North Africa and Western Asia. Medicinally, Hawthorn may be used as a antioxidant, cardiotonic, hypotensive and vasodilator in conditions such as heartburn, arteriosclereosis, hypertension and chronic congestive heart failure. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

hemidesmus (Hemidesmus Indicus)

Hemidesmus is a climbing vine native throughout India. Medicinally, Hemidesmus is used as a diaphoretic and immunodepressant in conditions such as chronic skin disorders, autoimmune diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

hops (humulus lupulus)

Hops is a perennial vine with deeply lobbed and toothed leaves, with flowers forming in cone like clusters for female plants native to Asia, Europe and North America. Medicinally, Hops is used as a sedative, hypnotic, digestive and antiviral in conditions such as neuralgia, insomnia, colitis and restlessness associated with nervous tension or indigestion. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

horse chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum)

Horse Chestnut is a deciduous tree with white flowers native to Asia and Europe. Medicinally, Horse Chestnut is used as a vein tonic, anti-inflammatory in conditions such as leg oedema, venous insufficiency, varicose veins, haemorrhoids and swelling. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

horseradish (armoracia rusticana)

Horseradish is a leafy perennial herb native to south western Europe and western Asia. Medicinally, Horseradish is used as a decongestant, digestive stimulant and circulatory stimulant in conditions such as hayfever, bronchitis, peripheral circulation, sinusitis and nasal congestion. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

horsetail (equisetum arvense)

Horsetail is a perennial plant on a thin, creeping rhizome with grey brown shoots native to Northern Europe, Asia and North America. Medicinally, Horsetail is used as a diuretic in conditions such as inflammation of the prostate gland and urinary incontinence. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

hyssop (hyssop officinalis)

Hyssop is a tall perennial herb with square stems, oblong leaves and small blue-violet flowers native to Southern and Eastern Europe. Medicinally, Hyssop is used as a carmative, diaphoretic and sedative in conditions such as bronchitis, nasal catarrh, common cold and fevers in children. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

immortelle (helichrysum arenarium)

Immortelle is a perennial plant with flat, wooly leaves and flowers loosely arranged a crossed between an umbel and panicle with bright golden yellow florets native to Eastern France and Denmark. Medicinally, Immortelle is used as a choleretic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as cystitis, arthritis, rheumatism and gallbladderdisorders. Vichkanova, S.A., Kolkhir, V.K., Sokolskaya, T.A., Voskoboinikova, I.V., Bykov, V.A.,2009. Medicinal preparations from plants (experience of VILAR). Ardis, Moscow p. 432. 1. Shikov A, Pozharitskaya O, Makarov V, Wagner H, Verpoorte R, Heinrich M. Medicinal Plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia; their history and applications. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;154(3):481-536.

inula (inula racemosa)

Inula is a tall perennial plant with large yellow flowers native to Central and Southern Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Inula is used as a anti angina, antispasmodic and bronchdoliator in conditions such as angina, asthma and general bronchial disorders. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

jamacian dogwood (piscidia piscipula)

Jamaican Dogwood is a shrub deciduous tropical tree native to the West Indies and Florida. Medicinally, Jamaican Dogwood is used as a sedative, antitussive and anti- inflammatory in conditions such as neuralgia, migraine and insomnia due to nervous tension. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

juniper (juniperis communis)

Juniper is an evergreen shrub with leaves in clusters of three that are needle like and bluish-white in appearance, blue or black berries stem from its greenish yellow flowers native to Europe, Asia and North America. Medicinally, Juniper is used as a antirheumatic, antiseptic, diuretic and calmative in conditions such as cystitis, colic, rheumatism and renal inflammation. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

kava (piper methylsticum)

Kava is an evergreen woody shrub with heart shaped leaves, inconspicuous flowers and large fleshy rhizome branches native to the Western Pacific Islands. Medicinally, Kava is used as a hypnotic, analgesic, antispasmodic and sedative in conditions such as the symptomatic treatment of mild states of stress and insomnia due to nervousness or stress and menopause. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

kola nut (cola nitida)

Kola Nut is a evergreen tree with large leaves, yellow flowers and nuts native to North West Africa, Medicinally, Kola Nut is used as an antidepressant, diuretic and central nervous system stimulant in conditions such as mental and physical fatigue, depressive states and exhaustion. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998.

korean ginseng (panax ginseng)

Korean Ginseng is a small single stemmed perennial plant with a small single cluster of flowers developing into bright red fruit native to Eastern Asia. Medicinally, Korean Ginseng is used as an adaptogen, cardioprotective, hepatonic and anti- inflammatory in conditions such as decreased mental and physical illnesses such as weakness, exhaustion and tiredness as well as immunodeficiency and cardiovascular disease. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 3, WHO Press 1999

lady’s mantle (alchemilla vulgaris)

Lady’s Mantle perennial herb with small yellow flowers native to Europe, North America and Asia. Medicinally, Lady’s Mantle is used as an astringent, anti-inflammatory and menstrual cycle regulator in conditions such as diarrohea, colic, common menstrual conditions and insomnia. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

lavender (lavandula angustifolia)

Lavender is an aromatic perennial evergreen shrub with lavender coloured flower native to the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Lavender is used as an antidepressant, antispasmodic and sedative in conditions such as restlessness and insomnia, nervous stomach irritation, flatulent dyspepsia, colic and anxiety. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. Herbalgram online database.

lemon balm (melissa officinalis)

Lemon Balm is an odorous herbaceous perennial with lemon scented stems and white or pinkish flowers native to the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia. Medicinally, Lemon Balm in used as a sedative, carminative, stomachic and antispasmodic in conditions such as tenseness, irritability and restlessness, symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders and insomnia. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999, Pg 254.

lemon grass (cymbopogon)

Lemon Grass is a tropical island grass species native to India and Asia. Medicinally, Lemon Grass is used as a analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory in conditions such as stomach and intestinal spasms, rheumatism, fever and colds. Pattnaik, S., Subramanyam, V. R., Kole, C. R., and Sahoo, S. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon: inter- and intra-specific differences. Microbios 1995;84(341):239-245 Carlini, E. A., Contar, J. de DP, Silva-Filho, A. R., Silveira-Filho, G., Frochtengarten, M. L., and Bueno, O. F. Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). I. Effects of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals. J Ethnopharmacol 1986;17(1):37-64

licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra)

Licorice is a perennial herb with short, whitish hairs native to south western Asia and the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Licorice is used as an expectorant for coughs, treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and dyspepsia and has also been used to prevent liver toxicity and aid adrenal function. Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China (English ed.). Guangzhou, Guangdong Science and Technology Press, 1992. Bradley PR, ed. British herbal compendium, Vol. 1. Bournemouth, British Herbal Medicine Association, 1992:145–148

lime tree (tilia spp)

Lime Tree is a deciduous tree with large heart-shaped leaves with greenish, yellow flowers native Europe .Medicinally, Lime Tree is used as a diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative and vasodilator in conditions such as the common cold, upper respiratory catarrh, hypertension and nervous tension. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

linden flower (tilia cordata)

Linden Flower is a deciduous tree with smooth greyish bark, heart shaped veined leaves with small clusters of yellow green flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Linden Flowers are used as antispasmodic, astringent and diuretic in conditions such as colds and coughs, migraines and gallbladder disorders. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al., ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998:163, 342, 343. Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Christof J. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 4th ed. Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare; 2007:532-534.

lovage (levisticum officinale)

Lovage is a stout, fleshy root perennial with a strong aromatic smell, with large dark green radical leaves bearing umbel shaped fruit yellowish-brown in color native to the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Lovage is used as a diuretic and carminative in conditions such as colic, flatulence and jaundice. Simon JE, Chadwick.A.F., Craker E. Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography. 1971-1980. The Scientific Literature on Selected Herbs, and Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of the Temperate Zone 1984.

magnolia (magnolia officinalis)

Magnolia is a deciduous tee with peeling grey bark, obovate leaves which have pale downy undersides with creamy white strongly scented flowers native to China. Medicinally, Magnolia is used as a bitter, warming digestive and antibacterial in conditions such as abdominal distention, diarrohea, indigestion, asthma and phlegm. The Complete Medicinal Herbal, by Penelope Ody, Dorling Kindersley, Inc, 232 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, First American Edition, copyright 1993 The Royal Horticultural Society new encyclopedia of herbs & their uses, Deni Bown - Dorling Kindersley - 2008.

maral root (rhaponticum carthamoides)

Maral Root is a herbaceous perennial plant growing 500 feet above sea level native to Russia. Medicinally, Maral Root is used as an adaptogen, carminative and circulatory stimulant in conditions such stress and reduced physical performance, memory, learning and libido. Dushkin M, et al Effects of rhaponticum carthamoides versus glycyrrhiza glabra and punica granatum extracts on metabolic syndrome signs in rats . BMC Complement Altern Med. (2014). Kokoska L, Janovska D Chemistry and pharmacology of Rhaponticum carthamoides: a review . Phytochemistry. (2009)

marshmallow (althaea officinalis)

Marshmallow is a perennial herb with a hairy stem, velvet leaves and pink flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Marshmallow is used as a diuretic, emmolient and wounder healer in conditions such as gastrointestinal inflammation, wounds, boils and ulcers. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Beaune, A. and Balea, T. Anti-inflammatory experimental properties of marshmallow: its potentiating action on the local effects of corticoids . Therapie 1966;21(2):341-347. Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. (eds). The Complete Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998, 166-7.

meadowsweet (filipendula ulmaria)

Meadowsweet is a long stalked, dark green and white plant with small scented yellowish white flowers native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Meadowsweet is used as an antacid and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as dyspepsia, heartburn, rheumatic muscle and joint pain and irritable bowel syndrome. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

mistletoe (viscum album)

Mistletoe is a semiparasitic woody shrub with leathery yellowish green leaves, inconspicuous flowers and spherical white berries native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Mistletoe used as a hypotensive and sedative in conditions such as high blood pressure, artheriosclerosis, hypertensive headache and hysteria. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

motherwort (leonurus cardiaca)

Motherwort is a hairy perennial herb with toothed drooping leaves and small pale pink flowers native to Northern Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Motherwort is used an antispasmodic, cardiotonic and sedative in conditions such as nervous cardiac disorders and hyperthyroidism. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. Herbalgram online database.

mugwort (artemisia vulgaris)

Mugwort is a perennial shrub with reddish or yellow flowers native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Mugwort is used as a stomach aid in conditions such as dyspepsia and thread worm infestations. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

mullein (verbascum thapsus)

Mullein is a wooly biennial with large ear like leaves and a tall flowering stem bearing yellow flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Mullein is used as a demulcent, emollient and expectorant in conditions such as bronchitis, influenza and respiratory catarrh. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

oats (avena sativa)

Oats is a cultivated grass native to the Mediterranean region including Europe and Northern Africa. Medicinally, Oats is used as an emollient, nerve tonic, sedative,anti- depressant, blood sugar regulator and reduces cholesterol in conditions such as eczema, shingles, herpes zoster virus, exhaustion, depression, high cholesterol and hypertension. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. John JH, Ziebland S, Yudkin P, Roe LS, Neil HA. Oxford Fruit and Vegetable Study Group: Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359:1969–74

olive tree (olea europea)

Olive Tree is an evergreen tree with pale grey thornless branches, elongated dark green leaves with white flowers that eventuate into dark purple fruits native to the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Olive Tree is used as a hypotensive, diuretic, antioxidant in conditions such as hypertension. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

onion (bulbus allii cepae)

Onion is a common household ingredient used around the world but is native to Western Asia. Medicinally, Onion is used to prevent age-dependent changes to blood vessels, loss of appetite, treatment of bacterial infections and diuretic. German Commission E Monograph, Allii cepae bulbus. Bundesanzeiger, 1986, 50:13 March. J. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants. Paris, Lavoisier, 1995.

oregon grape (berberis aquifolium)

Oregon Grape is an evergreen shrub with spiny leaves and yellow blossoms. Medicinally, Oregon Grape is used as an anti-inflammatory, antiomicrobial, hepatonic and alterative in conditions such as acne, dyspepsia, diarrohea, liver disease and rheumatic conditions. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

passionflower (passiflora incarnata)

Passionflower is a woody perennial vine with large open whitish purple and pink crown flowers native to Eastern and Southern North America. Medicinally, Passionflower is used as a sedative and anodyne in conditions such as restlessness, anxiety, insomnia and gastrointestinal disorders caused by nervousness. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

pau d’arco (tabebuia impetiginosa)

Pau D’Arco is a evergreen tropical tree with compound leaves and clusters of pink attractive flowers with a yellow throat native to Mexico and Argentina. Medicinally, Pau D’Arco is used as a antiviral, immunomodulator, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as candida and immune deficiency. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Park BS, Lee HK, Lee SE, Piao XL, Takeoka GR, Wong RY, et al. Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006;105:255-62.

pennyroyal (mentha pulegium)

Pennyroyal is a herbaceous plant with numerous pale mauve flowers with tiny leaves and a distinct smell native to Britain and Europe. Medicinally, Pennyroyal is used as a carminative, circulatory stimulant and diaphoretic in conditions such as flatulent dyspepsia, colic, common cold and delayed menstruation. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

pennywort (herba centellae)

Pennywort is a trailing herb native to warmer regions including Africa, Australia, Cambodia and Central America. Medicinally, Pennywort is used in the treatment of wounds, burn and hypertrophic scarring. It has also been used to treat stomach and duodenal ulcers and accelerate the healing of post surgical wounds. Kartnig T. Clinical applications of Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. In: Craker LE, Simon JE,eds., Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants: recent advances in botany, horticulture, and pharmacology, Vol. 3. Phoenix, AZ, Oryx Press, 1988:145– 173. Gravel JA. Oxygen dressings and asiaticoside in the treatment of burns. Laval medicine, 1965, 36:413–415.

peony (paeonia lactiflora)

Peony is a leafy perennial herb with red veined compound leaves and flowers generally white native to China, Japan and India. Medicinally, Peony is used as a antispasmodic, muscle relaxant, anti- inflammatory and angalesic in conditions such as amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, vertigo, allergies and muscle spasms. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

peppermint (mentha x piperita)

Peppermint is a leafy perennial herb with reddish-purple hairless leaves and stems native to Britain and Europe. Medicinally, Peppermint is used as an antibacterial, carminative, antispasmodic and antiseptic in conditions such as dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, IBS and gastritis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

periwinkle (vinca minor)

Periwinkle is a small herbaceous perennial herb with trailing branches, small dark green glossy leaves and attractive bluish purple flowers indigenous to Europe. Medicinally, Periwinkle is used as an astringent, haemostatic and sedative in conditions such as hypertension, vertigo, dizziness and tinnitus. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Weiss RF. Meuss AR, trans. Herbal Medicine. Gothenberg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1985:180-2.

phyllanthus (phyllanthus amarus)

Phyllanthus is a branching herb with a fused leaf and flower appearance native to the Philippines, Cuba and the West Indies. Medicinally, Phyllanthus is used as a hepatoprotective, antiviral and hypoglycaemic in conditions such as diarrohea, urinary bladder problems, liver disease and diabetes. S Verma, H Sharma, M Garg.Phyllanthus Amarus: A Review, Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2014; 3 (2):18-22. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

picrorrhiza (picrorrhiza kurroa)

Picrorrhiza is a small perennial herb with a bitter root native to the Himylayan Mountains. Medicinally, Picrorrhiza is used as a anti-allergic, immunomodulator and digestive tonic in condition such as allergies, asthma, immune deficiency and autoimmune conditions. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

plantain (plantago major)

Plantain is a herbaceous perennial plant with a large rosette of leaves native to Europe and Northern and Central Asia. Medicinally, Plantain is used as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic in conditions such as cystitis, hemorrhoids mouth ulcers and slow healing wounds. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

pleurisy root (asclepias tuberosa)

Pleurisy Root is a single stemmed perennial herb with orange flowers native to North America. Medicinally, Pleurisy Root is used as an expectorant, diaphoretic and antispasmodic in conditions such as cough, influenza, bronchitis and pleurisy. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

poke root (phytolacca americana)

Poke Root is a large herbaceous perennial plant with soft fleshy leaves, greenish- white flowers and elongated clusters of dark purple berries native to Eastern USA. Medicinally, Poke Root is used as a anticatarrh, lymphatic and anti- inflammatory in conditions such as chronic rheumatism, chronic respiratory catarrh, tonsilitis and laryngitis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

polygala (polygala tenuifolia)

Polygala is a small plant with linear leaves and purple flowers native to North China. Medicinally, Polygala is used as an expectorant, antitussive and sedative in conditions such as productive coughs, chronic bronchitis,anxiety and lower respiratory tract infections. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

polygonum (polygonum multiflorum)

Polygonum is a perennial twinning herbaceous vine native to China. Medicinally, Polygonum is used as a nervine tonic, anti-ageing, and digestive bitter in conditions such as connective tissue weakness, blurred vision, neurathesia and as a general ageing tonic. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

prickly ash (zanthoxylum clava-herculis)

Prickly Ash is a aromatic shrub with greenish-yellow flowers, pinnate leaves covered in prickles with deep blue or black berries enclosed in a grey shell native to southern USA. Medicinally, Prickly Ash is used as a circulatory stimulant, metabolic stimulant and diaphoretic in conditions such as impaired peripheral circulation, muscular cramps and spasms and Raynauds Syndrome. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

psyllium (plantago afra)

Psyllium is a annual hairy caulescent herb native to western Mediterranean countries. Medicinally, Psyllium is used as a bulk forming laxative, to help maintain regularity and reduce constipation. European pharmacopoeia, 3rd ed. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1997. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

raspberry leaf (rubus idaeus)

Raspberry Leaf is a small sprawling shrub with compound leaves with dense white hairs and pinkish red berries native to Europe and the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Raspberry Leaf is used as an astringent, smooth muscle stimulant and antispasmodic in conditions such as diarrohea, pregnancy, tonsillitis and to facilitate parturition. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

red clover (trifolium pratense)

Red Clover is a perennial plant with leafy branches and tripart leaves with a light V shaped marking with pale pink to reddish purple flowers native to Britain. Medicinally, Red Clover is used as a alterative, anti- cancer and muscle antispasmodic in conditions such as chronic skin disorders, pertussis and coughs. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

rehmannia (rehmannia glutinosa)

Rehmannia is a perennial plant with thick orange tube like roots, basal leaves and 5 lobed creamy yellow or purplish-brown flowers native to China. Medicinally, Rehmannia is used as an anti-inflammatory, adapotgen and adrenal restorer in conditions such as fevers, hypertension, diabete, and menstrual irregularities. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

rhubarb (rheum palmatum)

Rhubarb is a leafy perennial with large leaves arising from thick fleshy stalks with white to dark purple flowers and winged fruit native to China and Tibet. Medicinally, Rhubarb is used as an astringent, purgative, laxative and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as constipation, liver congestion and dyspepsia. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine.European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

ribwort (plantago lanceolata)

Ribwort is a dark green perennial herb with oblong sparsely hair and veined leaves, flowering stalks with pale pin flowers native to Europe and Central and Northern Asia. Medicinally, Ribwort is used as an expectorant, astringent and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as coughs, nasal catarrh and topically for slow healing of wounds. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

rosehip (rosa canina)

Rosehip is a woody creeper shrub with curved thorns, pink flowers and fleshy red shaped fruits or hips native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Rose Hip is used as an astringent, stomachic, diuretic and anti- inflammatory in conditions such as gastritis, diarrohea, arthritis and vitamin C deficiency. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis)

Rosemary is an aromatic evergreen shrub with narrow leaves and pale purple or bluish flowers native to Southern Europe and Mediterranean. Medicinally, Rosemary is used as a antioxidant, antimicrobial, carminative and analgesic in conditions such as alopecia, migraines, myalgia or sciatica, circulatory complaints and dyspepsia. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

sage (salvia officinalis)

Sage is a perennial shrublet with square stems, greyish rough leaves and purplish- blue flowers native to Eastern mediterranean and Southern Europe. Medicinally, Sage is used as an antiseptic in conditions such as oral cavity inflammations, tonsilitis, gingivits and excessive perspiration. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

sarsaparilla (sarsaparilla smilax)

Sarsaparilla is a large perennial climber with broad leaves, conspicuous tendrils, small greenish flowers and red berries native to Central and South America. Medicinally, Sarsaparilla is used as a alterative, anti- inflammatory, antirheumatic and diaphoretic in conditions such as psoarisis, chronic rheumatism and arthritis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

saw palmetto (serenoa repens)

Saw Palmetto is a small low-growing scrubby palm with dense crown of greyish green fan-shaped leaves with small flowers and single seeded fruits native to South Eastern Asia. Medicinally, Saw Palmetto is used as a antihyperprostatic, urinary antiseptic and diuretic in conditions such as dysuria, urine retention and benign prostatic hyperplasia. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine.European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs.

scarlet pimpernel (anagallis arvensis)

Scarlet Pimpernel is a biennial four- angled stem, ovate to lanceolate leaves, star shaped salmon red flowers with purple centres native to Europe. Medicinally, Scarlet Pimpernel is used as a mucilagionous agent, diurectic and expectorant for conditions such as fever, liver conditions, dopsy and rheumatism. The Royal Horticultural Society new encyclopedia of

schisandra (schisandra chinensis)

Schisandra is a hardy, deciduous vine with bright green leaves and yellowish white to pink flowers producing deep red berries native to China, Japan Korea and Russia. Medicinally, Schisandra is used as a hepatoprotective, adaptogen, nervine tonic and antioxidant in conditions such as the treatment of psychosis, gastritis, fatigue and nervous system disorders. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

senna pod (cassia senna)

Senna is perennial shrub with light green feather leaves, yellow flowers and long flat seed pods native to Northern Africa and the Middle East. Medicinally, Senna Pods are used for short-term and occasional constipation. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

shatavari (asparagus racemosus)

Shavatari is a woody climbing plant with pin like needles and tiny white flowers native to India. Medicinally, Shatavari is used as a diuretic, antispasmodic, adaptagen and antidiarroheal in conditions such as gastrointestinal inflammations, urinary tract inflammation, rheumatism, fatigue and infertility. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Alok S, Jain SK, Verma A, Kumar M, Mahor A, Sabharwal M. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari): A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2013;3(3):242-251.

shepards purse (capsella bursa-pastoris)

Shepards Purse is a perennial weed with oblong, lobed leaves with small white heart shaped fruit native to Europe. Medicinally, Shepards Purse is used as a urinary antiseptic in condition such as cystitis, dysmenorrhea, nosebleeds and skin wounds. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. Herbalgram online database.

siberian ginseng (eleutherococcus senticosus)

Siberian Ginseng is a herbaceous shrub with prickly leaves with multi-flower umbels native to Russia, China and Korea. Medicinally, Siberian Ginseng may be used as an adaptogen and immunomodulator in conditions such as decreased mental and physical performance such as weakness, exhaustion and loss of concerntration as well as insomnia. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 3, WHO Press 1999

sidebells wintergreen (orthilia secunda )

Sidebells Wintergreen is a perennial evergreen with round to oval leaves, green in winter, and greenish or white, 5-petaled flowers on a one-sided stalk native to Northern America. Medicinally, Sidebells Wintergreen is used as a antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic in conditions such as uterine fibroids, eye wash and as a general tonic. Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press

silver birch (betula pendula)

Silver Birch is a deciduous tree with peeling white paper bark native to Northern Europe and North America. Medicinally, Silver Birch is used as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as arthritis, gout, urinary tract infections and oedema. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

skullcap (scutellaria lateriflora)

Skullcap is a leafy perennial herb with fibrous roots, dark green pointed leaves and numerous bluish-violet helmet shaped flowers native to North America. Medicinally, Skullcap is used as a anticonvulsant, sedative and nerve tonic in conditions such as epilepsy,hysteria, nervous tension and premenstrual syndrome. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

slippery elm (ulmus fulva)

Slippery Elm is a deciduous tree with rounded crown, hairy young twigs, large oblong pointed leaves with hairy fruits native to Central and Southern USA. Medicinally, Slippery Elm is used as a demulcent, emollient and expectorant in conditions such as indigestion, sore throat, irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal discomfort. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Rotblatt M, Ziment I. Evidence-based Herbal Medicine. Philadelphia, Penn: Hanley & Belfus, Inc.;2202:337- 338. Hawrelak JA, Myers SP. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16:1065-71.

sour cherry (prunus cerasus)

Sour Cherry is a tree smaller than the sweet cherry with twiggy branches and small crimson black cherries with a more acidic taste native to Europe and South West Asia. Medicinally, Sour Cherry is used as an antioxidant, cardiotonic and anti-inflammatory in conditions such as osteoarthritis, gout and muscle pain. Burkhardt S, Tan DX, Manchester LC, et al. Detection and quantification of the antioxidant melatonin in Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus). J Agric Food Chem 2001;49:4898-902. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed. Paris, FR: Lavoisier, 1999:142.

sour dock (rumex acetosa)

Sour Dock is a perennial herb with a reddish upright stem with yellow-green or pinkish flowers, developing into red fruits with arrow shaped flowers. Medicinally, Sour Dock is used as an astringent and diuretic in conditions such as gastrointestinal inflammation, cysts, heavy menstrual flow and inflammation. Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.

soy (glycine max)

Soy is a cluster forming subtropical plant native to South-East Asia. Medicinally, Soy is used as phytoestrogen in conditions such as menopause, disturbances in fat metabolism E.g high cholesterol. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998. Herbalgram online database.

squaw vines (mitchella repens)

Squaw Vine is a perennial evergreen plant with funnel-shapped white and pink flowers native to North America. Medicinally, Squaw Vine is used as a uterine tonic, antispasmodic, diuretic and wound-healer in conditions such as dysmenorhhea, post partum haemorrhage and gastrointestinal colitis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

st john’s wort (hypericum perforatum)

St John’s Wort is a perennial aromatic herb with woody stems, pale green leaves and golden yellow flowers native to Europe and Asia.Medicinally, St John’s Wort is used as a antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and relaxant in condition such as mild to moderate depressive disorders, anxiety, irritabilty and topically on wounds. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

st marys thistle (silybum marianum)

St Marys Thistle is a herb bearing dark green leaves with white and toothed spiny margins with numerous purple flowers in large spiny heads. Native to Southern Europe, Russia and Africa. Medicinally, St Mary’s Thistle is used as a digestive tonic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant in conditions such as dyspeptic complaints, chronic hepatitis and liver insufficiency. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

stevia (stevia rebaundiana)

Stevia is a perennial shrub with small sweet leaves and tiny flowers native to North East Paraguay. Medicinally, Stevia is used as a hypoglycaemic and hypotensive in conditions such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Misra, H.; Soni, M.; Silawat, N.; Mehta, D.; Mehta, B. K.; Jain, D. C. (Apr 2011). “Antidiabetic activity of medium-polar extract from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. (Bertoni) on alloxan-induced diabetic rats”. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 3 (2): 242–8.

stinging nettle (urtica diocia folia)

Nettle Leaf is a perennial herb with greyish leaves, stinging hairs and bright green leaves and flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Stinging Nettle is used as a diuretic, astringent and circulatory stimulant in conditions such arthritis, inflammatory disease of the urinary tract and uterine haemorrhage. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

sundew (drosera longifolia)

Sundew is a small perennial rosette with rounded leaves covered in sticky red hairs with small white flowers native to Europe. Medicinally, Sundew may be used as a antispasmodic and bronchodilator in conditions such as bronchitis, asthma or gastritis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

tansy (tanacetum vulgare)

Tansy is a flowering herbaceous plant with compound leaves and yellow, button- like flowers, stout, somewhat reddish, erect stem branching near the top native to Eurasia. Medicinally, Tansy is used as a aromatic, diaphoretic, carminative and tonic in conditions such as varicose veins, delayed menstruation, bruising and rheumatic complaints. Duke JA, 1987. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Press. Mordujovich-Buschiazzo P, Balsa EM, Buschiazzo HO, Mandrile E, Rosella M, Schinella G, 1996. Anti-inflammatory activity of Tanacetum vulgare. Fitoterapia, 67(4):319-322.

thuja (thuja occidentalis)

Thuja is a spreading evergreen tree with flattened branchlets and dark green scale like leaves native to North America. Medicinally, Thuja is used as a stimulating expectorant, immunomodulator,alterative and antiviral in conditions such as common cold, throat infection, cystitis, rheumatism and bronchitis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

thyme (thymus vulgaris)

Thyme is a small aromatic perennial herb with greyish brown to purplish brown stems, green leaves and minute violet flowers native to Southern Eastern Europe. Medicinally, Thyme is used as a respiratory and urinary antiseptic, antispasmodic and astringent in conditions such as dyspepsia, chronic gastritis, coughs due to colds and pertussis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

tienchi ginseng (panax notoginseng)

Tienchi Ginseng is similar to appearance as Panax Giseng and is native to China. Medicinally, Tienchi Ginseng is used as a antihaemorrhagic, cardioprotective and anti- inflammatory in conditions such as internal bleeding, bruisng and high cholesterol. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

tribulus (tribulus terrestris)

Tribulus is a common weed with stout- spinded burs, sparse silky or bristly silver haired foliage and bright yellow flowers native to Europe and South- East Asia. Medicinally, Tribulus is used as a aphrodisiac and hepatoprotective in conditions such as erectile dysfunction, low libido, poor ovulation and menopausal symptom. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Sellandi TM, Thakar AB, Baghel MS Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study . Ayu. (2012)

true unicorn root (alteris farinosa)

True Unicorn Root is a small perennial herb native to Eastern USA. Medicinally, True Unicorn Root is used as a bitter tonic, uterine tonic and spasmolytic in conditions such as anorexia, dyspepsia, digestive disorders and flatulence. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

turmeric (curcuma longa)

Turmeric is a perennial herb from a large ovular rhizome, flesh orange in color native to South East Asia. Medicinally, Turmeric may be used as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepatoprotective in conditions such as acid, flatulence and atonic dyspepsia, pain due to rheumatoid arthritis and amenorrhea. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999

vervain (verbena officinalis)

Vervain is a weedy perennial with angular stems and slender spikes of small lilac flowers native to the Mediterranean. Medicinally, Vervain is used as a bitter tonic, diuretic, astringent and diaphoretic in conditions such as depression, anxiety, generalized seizures and fever. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

white dead nettle (lamium album)

White Dead Nettle is a perennial herb with heart shaped toothed leaves and off- white flowers native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally White Dead Nettle is used as an antihaemorraghic, astringent and wound healer in conditions such as dysmennorhea, menorrhagia and menstrual irregularities. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

white horehound (marrubium vulgare)

White Horehound is a hairy perennial herb with veined grey-green leaves and clustered tiny white flowers native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, White Horehound is used as a bitter tonic and expectorant in conditions such as acute or chronic bronchitis, IBS, bloating and flatulence. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

white willow bark (salix purpurea)

White Willow Bark is a deciduous tree bearing oblong silvery leaves and attractive catkins native to Europe, Asia and North Africa. Medicinally, White Willow Bark is used as a anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anodyne and antirheumatic in conditions such as muscular and arthroidal rheumatism, influenza, connective tissue disorders and lower back pain. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003.

wild cherry (prunus serotina)

Wild Cherry is a deciduous tree with smooth glossy red-brown bark, green leaves, white fragrant flowers and red to purple black fruits native to Northern America. Medicinally, Wild Cherry is used as a expectorant, antispasmodic and astringent in conditions such as persistent coughs, nervous dyspepsia, bronchitis and pertussis. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

wild indigo (baptisia tinctoria)

Wild Indigo is a bushy herbaceous plant with blue/green leaves and canary yellow flowers. Medicinally, Wild Indigo is used as a antimicrobrial, antiseptic, immunomodulator and lymphatic tonic in conditions such as the common cold, fever and infection, gingivitus and mouth ulcers . Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

wild pansy (viola tricolor)

Wild Pansy is a short lived perennial herb with heart shaped leaves and three-coloured flowers native to Eurasia. Medicinally, Wild Pansy is used as a expectorant, diuretic and antirheumatic in conditions such as acute bronchitis, cystitis and skin disorders. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

wild yam (dioscorea)

Wild Yam is a perennial twinning vine with thin reddish-brown stems with heart shaped leaves native to Central America or Asia. Medicinally, Wild Yam may be used as an anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic, nerve and stomach tonic in conditions such as flatulence, diverticulitis, muscular cramping, colic and rheumatism. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

witch hazel (hamamelis virginiana)

Witch Hazel is a small tree with forked branches and thread like golden-yellow flowers native to North America. Medicinally, Witch Hazel is used as an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and venotonic in conditions such as treatment of varicose veins, bruises, sprains, local skin inflammation and hemorrhoids. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), ESCOP Monographs. The scientific foundation for herbal medicinal products, 2nd Ed. ESCOP, Georg Thieme Veerlag, 2003. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 3, WHO Press 1999

wormwood (artemisia absinthium)

Wormwood is a shrubby aromatic perennial with yellow flower head native to Europe and West Asia. Medicinally, Wormwood is used as an expectorant, antiseptic, bitter tonic in conditions such as indigestion, anorexia, bile tract disorders and pin or round worm infestation. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. Sengul M, Ercisli S, Yildiz H, Gungor N, Kavaz A, etin B. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research : IJPR. 2011;10(1):49-56.

yarrow (achillea millefolium)

Yarrow is a herbaceous, perennial plant that produces one to several stems, leaves are evenly distributed along the stem, with the leaves near the middle and bottom of the stem being the largest with varying degrees of hairiness native to Eurasia. Medicinally, Yarrow is used as a antimicrobial, diaphoretic and astringent in conditions such as colds, fevers and gingivitis. Molochko, V. A., Lastochkina, T. M., Krylov, I. A., and Brangulis, K. A. The antistaphylococcal properties of plant extracts in relation to their prospective use as therapeutic and prophylactic formulations for the skin . Vestn Dermatol Venerol 1990;(8):54- 56. Van der Weijden, G. A., Timmer, C. J., Timmerman, M. F., Reijerse, E., Mantel, M. S., and van, der, V. The effect of herbal extracts in an experimental mouthrinse on established plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 1998;25(5):399-4

yellow dock (rumex crispus)

Yellow Dock is a robust leafy perennial with a stout tap root long curly edged leaves and numerous small greenish flowers native to Europe and Asia. Medicinally, Yellow Dock is used as a alterative, tonic and stimulant laxative in conditions such as chronic skin disease, jaundice, constipation and indigestion. British Herbal Medicine Association, British Herbal Pharmacopeia, Cowling BHMA, 1983 Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine

zizyphus (zizyphus spinosa)

Zizyphus is a spiny deciduous shrub with glossy leaves, yellow flowers and dark reddish brown ovoid fruit native to South Eastern Europe and China. Medicinally, Zizyphus is used as a sedative, hypnotic, hypotensive and relaxant in conditions such as the treatment of insomnia, nervousness and anxiety, improve muscular strength and reduce restlessness. Thomsen, Michael. & Gennat, Hanni. (2009). Phytotherapy: desk reference: a clinical handbook. Hobart: Global Natural Medicine. World Health organisation, WHO Mongraphs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, WHO Press 1999